Thursday, November 14, 2013

Brief History of Hungary

During the first century, the Romans widened the border of their empire towards the Danube and set up defensive positions along the border, including that area now called Budapest. Around that fortress a city developed. Remains of that Roman city can  be found at today's Óbuda (stone roads, amphitheatres, bastions, and fortresses). At the end of the 4th century the Roman's withdrew and the area came under the control of Hun, Longobard and Avar rule.
By the end of the 9th century, the Hungarians occupied the Pest part of the city.
Toward the end of the 13th century, the invading Mongols destroyed most of the old cities of Pest and Óbuda, leaving the Tatar tribe of the Mongolian Horde in charge. After the Tartars left the country, the Buda castle was built and became the royal residence and citizen area, while Pest operated as a commercial centre.

In the 15th century, Buda became the political, cultural and artistic centre of contemporary Europe. The Royal Palace was rebuilt, a library, a printing house and a college were opened. From the 16th century the city stood under the rule of the Turkish Empire, and became an Asian-type, Eastern city. Apart from the world famous Turkish Baths few remarkable monuments were raised during this period.

From the end of the 17th century Budapest was rebuilt step by step. The today's town hall and most of the baroque churches were erected during this period. The Royal Palace has been also renewed. Buda remained the administrative center while Pest grew as the industrial and commercial center of the country. At the first half of the 19th century, the Chain Bridge was erected, tightening the link between Buda and Pest.
Then in 1848 the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy was established and the city's flourished. In 1873 Buda, Pest and Óbuda united as Budapest. Budapest continued to develop adding municipal infrastructure to support its growth., eventually competing with Vienna as the cultural center of Europe.

During the World Warn II, most of the city was ruined or damaged, the bridges were all destroyed. The Soviet Union enforced a Communist Regime and began to rebuild Budapest.

In 1956, students led the Hungarian Uprising, a spontaneous, nationwide revolt against the imposed communist government and The Soviet troops and tanks put down the revolt and inflicted considerable destruction again in Budapest. Now, as an independent nation, Hungary and its capital, Budapest are flourishing again.

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